Calendar

Ancient observatories played very important role in the community life organization.
Observatories were used for calendar development that had two purposes. One of its purposes was to provide some logical explanation on the agriculture and livestock breading natural cycle of things. Only by starting a fire on the top of the observatory that is dominant in a cycle of about 30 km people were informed that it is time to start with the ploughing, planting the seeds, that it is time for harvest, time to take the livestock to the green meadows and etc.

This Observatory key role facilitate to the increase of the agricultural crops and to the improvement of the community life safety and quality. Ancient observers by constant monitoring of the Sun and the Moon movements were in a position to foresee the coming of the ritual and ceremonial days.  In such way, the calendar contributed to the community religious life organization. Mentioned ceremonies linked to the Great Mother Goddess, the God Sun and the Harvest Day are obviously just a small part of the great spectrum of ceremonies and rituals performed on the Megalithic Observatory Kokino. They are also evidences for the existence of one well-developed and well-founded cosmogony in the imagination of the people that lived in these areas in the time that is called as Bronze Age of the human civilization development.

Archaeo-astronomical analyze of the site clearly identified two so called Time Markers used at the observatory for the purpose of time measuring.  The evidence leads us to the clearly emerging fact that on the Kokino Megalithic Observatory people knew about the Lunar Calendar with the 19 years of cycle. They knew that the same calendar day is appearing in the same phase of the Moon, and could be seen through one of the markers every 19 years. These are the bases of the Kokino Lunar Calendar. Right next to the markers that are used for marking the position of the Full Moon Rise in the days of the Winter Major Standstill and Summer Minor  Standstill, there are markers  though which the Full Moon rise  can be seen one lunar month later. Length of the winter lunar months is 29 days, and summer lunar months are of 30 days.

Monitoring the Moon rise, ancient observers on the Observatory noticed that although the regular years consists of 12 lunar months, every 2, 5, 8, 10, 13, 16 и 18 year consists of 13  lunar months. In the regular years there were 6 winter months each of 29 days, and six summer months each with 30 days. In the “leap years”, one summer month was added with 30 days of length.  This method was used for time measuring according to the below presented table. Such Calendar enabled good relation between the real seasonal changes and agricultural and livestock breading activities.