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Republic of Macedonia is a landlocked country that is geographically clearly defined by a central valley formed by the Vardar river and framed along its borders by mountain ranges.
It is bordered by Serbia to the north, Albania to the west, Greece to the south, and Bulgaria to the east. Republic’s terrain is mostly rugged, located between the Sara and Osogovo, which frame the valley of the Vardar river. Three large lakes — Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa and Dojran Lake — lie on the southern borders of the Republic, bisected by the frontiers with Albania and Greece. Ohrid is considered to be one of the oldest lakes and biotopes in the world. The region is seismically active and has been the site of destructive earthquakes in the past, most recently in 1963 when Skopje was heavily damaged by a major earthquake, killing over 1,000.
The Republic of Macedonia also has scenic mountains. They belong to two different ranges: Dinarska and Rodopska. The Dinarska range is the oldest with subsequent erosion; the Rodopska range is younger offering rugged, alpine sceneries. It has more than 50 natural and artificial lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2,000 meters (6,550 ft) above sea level.

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By air: International airports in Skopje and Ohrid connect Macedonia with several major European cities. Close regional airports in Belgrade, Sofia and Thessaloniki can also be used, as they are all within a few hours’ drive from Macedonia.

By train: An international train, operating twice daily, connects Ljubljana, Slovenia and Thessaloniki, Greece by way of Macedonia. Stops include Tabanovce (the Macedonia-Serbia border crossing point), Kumanovo, Skopje, Veles, Gradsko, Negotino, Demir Kapija, and Gevgelija (Greek border crossing point), as well as a few small villages. An east-west railway to connect Bulgaria with Macedonia is at present under construction.

By car: The international highway E-75 runs north-south from Serbia to Greece, bisecting Macedonia. This is the most common route for overland tourists to take for entering Macedonia. There are also good roads connecting the country with Bulgaria to the east and Albania to the west.

By bus: A number of bus lines connect Macedonia with all neighboring countries and other European cities. Buses are frequent, and offer relatively inexpensive fares and professional service.